Ghusl is to encompass the entire body with water.
What are the reasons that require a person to do Ghusl?
- The ejaculation of mani’ (semen) with lust. The scholars opine that if it rushes out and there is no desire then this might not be semen but if there is only emission but with desire then this could be madhiy’ (pre-seminal fluid).
- The touching of the circumcised parts of the male and the female. This makes it obligatory upon both of them. This ghusl has Sunnan and Wajibat. From the wajibat is to have the correct intention while beginning.
The Ghusl is of 2 types:
- The Complete Ghusl
This includes doing the complete Wudhu and encompassing the entire body with water.
- The Minimal Ghusl
This includes encompassing the entire body with water without doing wudhu but rinsing the mouth and the nose as they are part of the face. The jumhur though say that including them is Sunnah and not Wajib.
As per Ibn Qudamah, tasmiyyah is Sunnah. As per the established position of the madhab, it is Wajib.
The person should wipe the water over all the parts of the body and this is from the Sunnah.
Description of the Prophet’s Ghusl
- Ibn ‘Abbas narrated that his maternal aunt Maimunah said: “I put out some water for the Prophet to take a bath, and he bathe to cleanse himself from impurity following sexual activity. He tilted the vessel with his left hand, pouring water into his right, and washed his hands three times. Then he pourd water over his private parts, then he rubbed his hands on the ground. Then he rinsed his mouth and nose, and washed his face three times, and his forearms three times. Then he poured water over the rest of his body, then he moved aside and washed his feet.” [Sunan Ibn Majah]
- Narrated ‘Aishah: When Allah’s Messenger ﷺ took Ghusl (bath) after sexual intercourse, he would begin by washing his hands, then pour water with his right hand on his left hand and wash his sexual organ. He would then perform ablution, then take some water and run his fingers through the roots of the hair. Then he would pour three helpfuls on his head, then pour water over the rest of his body and subsequently wash his feet. [Agreed upon and this version is of Muslim]
Hadith of Maimuna (no wudhu but madmada) and Aisha (with wudhu). The scholars write that this teaches us the 2 types of Ghusl. The scholars differ over if the feet should be washed only during wudhu or at the end also. This is a matter in which there is ease as per the scholars. Based on the hadith of Aisha it is better to wash the feet with the wudhu so that it is a complete wudhu. likewise based on the hadith of Maimunah, if someone washes the feet at the end then that is also acceptable.
As per the madhab, as for the women then she does not need to unbraid the hair if she is taking the shower of janabah as long as water can reach the roots of her hair.
In the case of menstruation the Hanabila opine that she needs to unbraid her hair for her ghusl to be valid. This is against the position held by the majority of the scholars which states that unbraiding the hair is not required for ghusl from intercourse, menstruation or post natal bleeding.
If the person intends with the ghusl without including wudhu in it, to remove both the states of impurity (major and minor) then his ghusl is acceptable. But if the person was to have only a single intention with this type of wudhu, then it’s restricted to just that.
However, if a person was to do the complete ghusl which includes wudhu then both the minor and major states of impurity are uplifted and the person can make Salah.
If somebody makes tayammum and he was in a state of impurity as well as having some najjasa on him, then this tayammum suffices for both in uplifting the state of major and minor impurities. It is known that tayammum is for hadath only and not khabath.
But if he is doing tayammum in a state of janabah then he must intend in his heart to uplift the major and minor state of impurities. But if he makes only one intention then whatever he intends applies for that alone.