About The Author
The author of this treatise is Sheikh al-Muhaddith Dr. Saleh Ibn Abdullah Ibn Hamad al-Usaymi al-Utaybi حفظه الله from Saudi Arabia. He was born in the year 1391H. He started studying from a very young age and travelled to seek knowledge across many countries like Kuwait, Oman, Yemen, Sudan, Algeria, India, Egypt, Syria and others. The Sheikh graduated from Imam Muhammad Ibn Saud University from the faculty of Usool Ad-Deen, and received his masters in Hadith sciences from Umm-ul Qura University. He further received his doctorate successfully in 1436H from the Faculty of Judgments from Imam Muhammad Ibn Saud University in Riyadh. He was appointed as a member of the Council of Senior Scholars in Saudi Arabia in 1438H. Sheikh is a prominent teacher at Masjid al-Nabawi currently and has also taught in Masjid al-Haram. He is well known for his classes in Masjid al-Nabawi which are attended by thousands of students from around the world in Madinah.
This short book, 'al-Baqiyat us-Salihat min al-Adhkar ba'd al-Salawat' (الباقيات الصالحات من الأذكار بعد الصلوات) is authored by the esteemed Sheikh Saleh al-Usaymi حفظه الله with regards to the adhkar made after the prayers. All the adhkar mentioned here are authentic in nature and are specific to that which is recited after the obligatory prayers and some special cases for the voluntary prayers. For ease of reading and understanding, the text of the matn and its subsequent explanation have been merged together.
The title of this book is inspired from the Ayah of the Quran where Allah says,
ٱلْمَالُ وَٱلْبَنُونَ زِينَةُ ٱلْحَيَوٰةِ ٱلدُّنْيَا ۖ وَٱلْبَقِيَتُ ٱلصَّلِحَتُ خَيْرٌ عِندَ رَبِّكَ ثَوَابًۭا وَخَيْرٌ أَمَلًۭا
Wealth and children are (but) adornment of the worldly life. But the enduring good deeds are better to your Lord for reward and better for (one's) hope. [Surah al-Kahf, 46]
The term, 'Al-Baqiyāt as-Salihāt' includes all the actions that are pleasing to Allah and that which brings us closer to Allah in His Obedience.
The Sheikh begins his book with just the Basmalah and nothing else. This is the Sunnah that we learn from the letters of the Messenger of Allah. This was also seen in the works of Imam Ahmad رحمه الله for his Musnad and Imam al-Nawawi رحمه الله among others.
The adhkar after salah are from the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah ﷺ. Sunnan is the plural of Sunnah. These adhkar form just a small part of the blessed Sunnah. This includes the adhkar after the obligatory as well as the voluntary prayers. In general, there are other adhkar done before and during the salah as well. Here, the Sheikh focuses just on the adhkar after the salah. These are to be recited after the person praying has done the tasleem.
The term Sunnah refers to two or three things. The first refers to the complete religion (Shariah) that the Messenger of Allah ﷺ brought and the Sunnah of Allah. Allah says,
سُنَّةَ ٱللَّهِ فِى ٱلَّذِينَ خَلَوْا۟ مِن قَبْلُ ۖ وَلَن تَجِدَ لِسُنَّةِ ٱللَّهِ تَبْدِيلًۭا
(This is) the established way of Allāh with those who passed on before; and you will not find in the way of Allāh any change. [Surah al-Ahzab, 62]
The second and more specific meaning of Sunnah are those actions of the Shariah that a person is to do, but they are not made obligatory upon him. A person does not sin for not performing these acts. For the second usage, terms like mustahab or nawafil are also used.
The Messenger of Allah ﷺ said, "So hold fast to my Sunnah and the examples of the Rightly- Guided Caliphs who will come after me. Adhere to them and hold to it fast. Beware of new things (in Deen) because every Bid'ah is a misguidance". [Abu Dawud]
From this hadith, we also learn about the third type of Sunnah, which is the Sunnah of the rightly guided khulafah.
What is being discussed in this treatise is the second type of Sunnah. These adhkar are from the nawafil. Adhkar is the plural of dhikr. Dhikr is the remembrance and glorification of Allah in the heart, or upon the tongue, or in both places. This means that what we are uttering upon the tongue is understood, internalised, have yaqeen upon, and loved by the heart. The third form is the most complete form of dhikr. If the heart is not present, then the rewards diminish.
The adhkar done after salah are of 2 types:
- The adhkar done after the 5 obligatory (fardh) salat. These are the Salat of Dhuhr, Asr, Maghrib, Isha and Fajr.
- The adhkar done after the voluntary (nawafil) salat.
It could come as a surprise for many to learn that even after nawafil salah there are adhkar to be made. The first type are the adhkar that are done after the fardh salah.
What Is Meant By 'After the Salah'?
Narrated Mu'adh bin Jabal رضي الله عنه that Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) told me,
أُوصِيكَ يَا مُعَاذُ : لَا تَدَعَنَّ دُبُرَ كُلِّ صَلَاةٍ أَنْ تَقُولُ : اَللَّهُمَّ أَعِنِّي عَلَى ذِكْرِكَ وَشُكْرِكَ وَحُسْنِ عِبَادَتِكَ
"O Mu'adh, I will give you some advice - Never leave the recitation of this supplication after every prayer: 'O Allah, help me to remember You, thank You, and worship You perfectly.'" [Ahmad and Abu Dawud]
The term 'دُبُرِ الصَّلَاةِ' is used in many such ahadith that talk about adhkar. It can refer to two types of occurrences. The first type of its occurrence is when the dhikr is done at the end of the salah such that it is still connected to the salah and done just before the tasleem. This is the period of tashahhud. The second type is when the dhikr is done immediately after the tasleem which is now disconnected from the salah.
Adhkar that are known after the fardh salah are 6. We do not find these six adhkar mentioned in one single hadith or in order. We find them from multiple different narrations that are collected and presented here. The Sheikh has presented 6 adhkar here and he has left out 2 types of adhkar that are usually also mentioned in this category. The first are those adhkar that are famous among the masses, but the authenticity of those adhkar is weak or questionable. The second are those adhkar that are authentic yet they are misplaced. This means that they are meant to be recited before the tasleem and not after it. The dhikr narrated above from the Hadith of Muadh is such an example where it is to be recited before the tasleem and not after it.
The First Dhikr
The first dhikr to be done after the salah is to seek the forgiveness of Allah by saying 'Astaghfirullah' (أستغفر الله) three times. The best and most complete form of this dhikr is Astaghfirullah wa Atubu Ilaih (أَسْـتَـغْـفِـرُ اللهَ وَ أَ تُـوبُ إِ لَـْيهِ) three times. The minimum is saying 'Astaghfirullah' (أستغفر الله).
Thawban رضي الله عنه reported:
كَانَ رَسُولُ اَللَّهِ - صلى الله عليه وسلم - إِذَا اِنْصَرَفَ مِنْ صَلَاتِهِ اِسْتَغْفَرَ اَللَّهَ ثَلَاثًا , وَقَالَ : " اَللَّهُمَّ أَنْتَ اَلسَّلَامُ وَمِنْكَ اَلسَّلَامُ . تَبَارَكْتَ يَا ذَا اَلْجَلَالِ وَالْإِكْرَامِ
Whenever the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) finished his salat, he would beg forgiveness three times and then he would say: O Allah! You are the Bestower of security and security comes from You; Blessed are You. O Possessor of glory and honour." [Muslim]. The exact wordings that the Prophet ﷺ used to seek forgiveness are not explicitly highlighted here.
Imam al-Awzai رحمه الله (one of the sub-narrators) of this hadith was asked: "How should forgiveness be sought?" He replied: "I say: Astaghfirullah, Astaghfirullah (I seek forgiveness from Allah. I seek forgiveness from Allah)."
Aisha رضي الله عنها said, After the revelation of (the Surah an-Nasr) "When the Help of Allah comes (to you, O Muhammad (ﷺ) against your enemies) and the Conquest (of Makkah)" (110:1), Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) used to recite in every prayer:
سُبْـحانَكَ اللّهُـمَّ رَبَّـنا وَبِحَـمْدِك ،اللّهُـمَّ اغْفِـرْ لي
Far removed are You from every imperfection, our Rubb, and all praise is for You. Forgive me, O Allah. [Bukhari and Muslim].
Ali b. Abi Talib رضي الله عنه said: When the Prophet (ﷺ) uttered salutation at the end of the prayer, he used to say:
اللَّهُمَّ اغْفِرْ لِي مَا قَدَّمْتُ وَمَا أَخَّرْتُ وَمَا أَسْرَرْتُ وَمَا أَعْلَنْتُ وَمَا أَسْرَفْتُ وَمَا أَنْتَ أَعْلَمُ بِهِ مِنِّي أَنْتَ الْمُقَدِّمُ وَأَنْتَ الْمُؤَخِّرُ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ أَنْتَ
"O Allah, forgive me my former and latter sins, what I have kept secret and what I have done openly, and what I have done extravagance; and what You know better than I do. You are the Advancer, the Delayer, there is no god but You." [Abu Dawud]
We see here that 'اللَّهُمَّ اغْفِرْ لِي' is also another form of seeking forgiveness from Allah. Many different wordings of Istighfar are reported by our scholars.
Why don't we recite Sayyid al-Istighfar here after salah instead?
Shaddad ibn Aws رضي الله عنه relates that the Prophet ﷺ said that the (Sayyid al-Istighfar) most superior way of asking for forgiveness from Allah is to say (the above dua). That “If somebody recites it during the day with firm faith in it, and dies on the same day before the evening, he will be from the people of Paradise; and if somebody recites it at night with firm faith in it, and dies before the morning, he will be from the people of Paradise.” [Bukhari]
اللَّهُمَّ أَنْتَ رَبِّي لا إِلَهَ إِلا أَنْتَ خَلَقْتَنِي وَأَنَا عَبْدُكَ وَأَنَا عَلَى عَهْدِكَ وَوَعْدِكَ مَا اسْتَطَعْتُ أَعُوذُ بِكَ مِنْ شَرِّ مَا صَنَعْتُ أَبُوءُ لَكَ بِنِعْمَتِكَ عَلَيَّ وَأَبُوءُ لَكَ بِذَنْبِي فَاغْفِرْ لِي فَإِنَّهُ لا يَغْفِرُ الذُّنُوبَ إِلا أَنْتَ
O Allah! You are my Lord! None has the right to be worshipped but You. You created me and I am Your slave, and I am faithful to my covenant and my promise as much as I can. I seek refuge with You from all the evil I have done. I acknowledge before You all the blessings You have bestowed upon me, and I confess to You all my sins. So I entreat You to forgive my sins, for nobody can forgive sins except You.
The simple answer is that despite its status, this is not the correct place for its recitation. It was taught to be recited with the morning and evening adhkar instead.
The Second Dhikr
The second dhikr is to say:
اَللَّهُمَّ أَنْتَ اَلسَّلَامُ وَمِنْكَ اَلسَّلَامُ . تَبَارَكْتَ يَا ذَا اَلْجَلَالِ وَالْإِكْرَامِ
O Allah, You are as-Salam (One Free from every defect), and safety from every evil is sought from You. Blessed are You, O Possessor of Glory and Honour. [Muslim].
This is to be recited once. This was also highlighted in the same hadith of Thawban above.
انَ رَسُولُ اَللَّهِ - صلى الله عليه وسلم - إِذَا اِنْصَرَفَ مِنْ صَلَاتِهِ اِسْتَغْفَرَ اَللَّهَ ثَلَاثًا , وَقَالَ
If we focus on the wording of the narration we see that there is a connection and a sequence of recitation between the first and second dhikr. This is signified by ' وَقَالَ' and this is how these adhkar are to be recited.
In a similar narration, Aisha رضي الله عنها reported, when the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) pronounced the taslim, he would not remain seated except long enough to say:
اللَّهُمَّ أَنْتَ السَّلاَمُ وَمِنْكَ السَّلاَمُ تَبَارَكْتَ ذَا الْجَلاَلِ وَالإِكْرَامِ
'O Allah! You are the One free of defects, and safety from every evil is sought from You. Blessed are You, Possessor of Glory and Honour.'" [Muslim]
The only difference between the two authentic narrations is the wording, ' يَا'. In such cases, it is best to at times recite one version and at times the other.
Some people add 'Rabbana wa ta'aalayta' (تَبَارَكْتَ رَبَّنَا وَتَعَالَيْتَ ) to the wording of the dikhr and this is incorrect and inauthentic even though its meaning might be good. As a general rule of thumb, adhkar that are restricted to a particular time cannot be added to with extra wordings etc. The unrestricted adhkar that can be recited at any point of the day has more room for addition or subtraction.
An important point is connected to these adhkar. Once the Imam has recited these two adhkar, it is from the Sunnah for the Imam to now turn back and face the congregation. The congregation after these two adhkar doesn't turn around ofcourse, but rather shifts from the tawarruq position of seating to a relaxed form of seating. This is also what a person should do when they are praying alone. This has been explicitly highlighted by Imam Ibn Daqiq al-Id رحمه الله and Sheikh Ibn Baz رحمه الله among contemporary scholars.
The Third Dhikr
The third dhikr is:
Narrated al-Mughirah bin Shu'bah رضي الله عنه: The Prophet (ﷺ) used to say after every obligatory prayer:
لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اَللَّهُ وَحْدَهُ لَا شَرِيكَ لَهُ , لَهُ اَلْمُلْكُ , وَلَهُ اَلْحَمْدُ , وَهُوَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ ,
اَللَّهُمَّ لَا مَانِعَ لِمَا أَعْطَيْتَ , وَلَا مُعْطِيَ لِمَا مَنَعْتَ , وَلَا يَنْفَعُ ذَا اَلْجَدِّ مِنْكَ اَلْجَدُّ
"There is nothing worthy of worship except Allah Alone, Who has no partner. To Him belongs the kingdom, to Him praise is due, and He has power over every thing.
O Allah no one can withhold what You have given, or give what You have withheld and riches cannot avail a wealthy person against You." [Agreed Upon]
This is to be recited once.
There are other narrations where it is mentioned to be recited thrice but those narrations are shādh or not reliable. Some narrations mentioned it to be recited ten times after Fajr and Maghrib salat, but those narrations are dhaeef. This confusion and misunderstanding further arose because the first half of the above dua is part of the morning and evening adhkar and it is to be recited 10 times. People wrongfully added it to after the prayers. The narration is:
Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) said: Whoever says:
لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ وَحْدَهُ لاَ شَرِيكَ لَهُ، لَهُ الْمُلْكُ، وَلَهُ الْحَمْدُ، وَهُوَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ
ten times, will have the reward for freeing four slaves from the Children of Isma'il. [Bukhari]
A benefit to show the status and great reward of this dhikr is narrated that the Prophet ﷺ said, “The best supplication is that on the day of Arafah, and the best thing which I and the Prophets before me have said is,
لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ وَحْدَهُ لَا شَرِيكَ لَهُ لَهُ الْمُلْكُ وَلَهُ الْحَمْدُ وَهُوَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْء قدير
‘There is no god but God alone who has no partner; to Him belongs the dominion, to Him praise is due, and He is omnipotent’.’’ [Tirmidhi]
The Fourth Dhikr
The fourth dhikr is similar to the third one but with a change in the second half of the dhikr.
Abdallah ibn az-Zubair رضي الله عنه said that when Allah’s Messenger ﷺ said the taslim at the end of his prayer he used to say as loudly as he could:
لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ وَحْدَهُ لَا شَرِيكَ لَهُ لَهُ الْمُلْكُ وَلَهُ الْحَمْدُ وَهُوَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ
لَا حَوْلَ وَلَا قُوَّةَ إِلَّا بِاللَّه
لَا إِلَه إِلَّا الله لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ وَلَا نَعْبُدُ إِلَّا إِيَّاهُ لَهُ النِّعْمَةُ وَلَهُ الْفَضْلُ وَلَهُ الثَّنَاءُ الْحَسَنُ
لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ مُخْلِصِينَ لَهُ الدّين وَلَو كره الْكَافِرُونَ
“There is none worthy of worship except Allah alone, with no partner or associate. His is the Dominion, to Him be all praise, and He is able to do all things; there is no power and no strength except with Allah the Almighty. There is none worthy of worship except Allah, and we worship none but Him, the source of blessing and kindness and the One Who is deserving of all good praise. There is none worthy of worship except Allah, and we are sincere in faith and devotion to Him even though the disbelievers detest it. [Muslim]
This is to be recited once.
Can we merge the third and fourth adhkar together since the first half is the same? Yes This can be done as scholars state that things that are similar to such degree can be merged together for ease of practice. This is similar to how the hujjaj merge Tawaf al-Ifadah and Tawaf al-Wada' with the acceptance of all the scholars. But if one wishes to do what is most complete and best, then it is best to recite both the adhkar separately.
The Fifth Dhikr
The fifth dhikr is a group of adhkar that includes:
Tasbeeh: This is glorify Allah by saying سُـبْـحَـانَ ٱلله - Glory be to Allah
Tahmeed: This is praise Allah by saying ٱلْحَمْدُ لِلَّٰهِ - All Praise belongs to Allah
Takbeer: This is to proclaim the greatness of Allah by saying ٱللَّٰهُ أَكْبَرُ - Allah is Great
Tahleel: This is to declare the oneness of Allah by saying لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا ٱللَّٰهُ - There is none worthy of worship except Allah
There are 5 different modes of reciting these adhkar. They are:
1. SubhanAllah 10 times, Alhamdulilah 10 times, and AllahuAkbar 10 times
Narrated Abu Hurairah رضي الله عنه: The people said, "O Allah's Messenger (ﷺ)! The rich people have got the highest degrees of prestige and the permanent pleasures (in this life and the life to come in the Hereafter)." He said, "How is that?" They said, "The rich pray as we pray, and strive in Allah's Cause as we do, and spend from their surplus wealth in charity, while we have no wealth (to spend likewise)." He said, "Shall I not tell you a thing, by doing which, you will catch up with those who are ahead of you and supersede those who will come after you; and nobody will be able to do such a good deed as you do except the one who does the same (deed as you do). That deed is to recite 'SubhanAllah ten times, and 'Alhamdulilah ten times, and 'AllahuAkbar' ten times after every prayer." [Bukhari]
Narrated Abdullah ibn Amr رضي الله عنه: The Prophet (ﷺ) said: There are two qualities or characteristics which will not be returned by any Muslim without his entering Paradise. While they are easy, those who act upon them are few. One should say: "SubhanAllah" ten times after every prayer, "Alhamdulilah" ten times and "AllahuAkbar" ten times. That is a hundred and fifty on the tongue, but one thousand and five hundred on the scale. [Abu Dawud]
2. SubhanAllah 25 times, Alhamdulilah 25 times, AllahuAkbar 25 times, and Laa Ilaha Illallah 25 times
It was narrated from Ibn Umar رضي الله عنه that: A man saw in a dream that it was said to him: "What does your Prophet (ﷺ) command you to do?" He said: "He commanded us to say Tasbeeh thirty-three times following the prayer, and to say the tahmeed thirty-three times, and to say the takbeer thirty-four times, and that makes one-hundred." He said: Say the tasbeeh twenty-five times and say the tahmeed twenty-five times and say the takbeer twenty-five times and say the tahleel twenty-five times, and that will make one hundred." The following morning he told the Prophet (ﷺ) about that and the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: "Do what the Ansari said." [Nasai] Similar has been narrated on the authority of Zaid ibn Thabit رضي الله عنه.
Note: Dreams cannot change, modify or add anything to the Shariah. This was something approved by the Prophet ﷺ himself, hence it became part of the Shariah. This door has closed now with the passing of the Prophet ﷺ and we have to stick to the authentically transmitted texts.
3. SubhanAllah 33 times, Alhamdulilah 33 times, and AllahuAkbar 33 times
Narrated Abu Hurairah رضي الله عنه: Some poor people came to the Prophet (ﷺ) and said, "The wealthy people will get higher grades and will have permanent enjoyment and they pray like us and fast as we do. They have more money by which they perform the Hajj, and `Umrah; fight and struggle in Allah's Cause and give in charity." The Prophet (ﷺ) said, "Shall I not tell you a thing upon which if you acted you would catch up with those who have surpassed you? Nobody would overtake you and you would be better than the people amongst whom you live except those who would do the same. Say "SubhanAllah", "Alhamdulilah" and "AllahuAkbar" thirty three times each after every (compulsory) prayer."
We differed and some of us said that we should say, "SubhanAllah" thirty three times and "Alhamdulilah" thirty three times and "AllahuAkbar" thirty four times. I went to the Prophet (ﷺ) who said, "Say, "SubhanAllah" and "Alhamdulilah" and "AllahuAkbar" all together, thirty three times." [Bukhari]
4. SubhanAllah 33 times, Alhamdulilah 33 times, AllahuAkbar 34 times
Ka'b bin 'Ujrah رضي الله عنه reported: The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said, "There are some words, the reciters of which will never be disappointed. These are: Tasbeeh thirty-three times, Tahmeed thirty-three times and Takbeer thirty-four times; and these should be recited after the conclusion of every prescribed prayer." [Muslim]
5. SubhanAllah 33 times, Alhamdulilah 33 times, AllahuAkbar 33 times and finishing with a single
La Ilaha Illallah Wahdahu la shareekalahu, Lahul Mulk walahul Hamd wa huwa ‘alaa kulli shayin qadeer
لا إلهَ إلاّ اللّهُ وحْـدَهُ لا شَـريكَ لهُ،لهُ المُـلْكُ ولهُ الحَمْـد،وهُوَ على كُلّ شَيءٍ قَدير
Abu Hurairah رضي الله عنه reported Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) as saying: If anyone extols Allah after every prayer thirty-three times, and praises Allah thirty-three times, and declares His Greatness thirty-three times, ninety-nine times in all, and says to complete a hundred:" There is no god worthy of worship but Allah, having no partner with Him, to Him belongs sovereignty and to Him is praise due, and He is Potent over everything," his sins will be forgiven even If these are as abundant as the foam of the sea. [Muslim]
Scholars after listing all these modes, narrate that the fifth mode is the most complete and best of modes because of the rewards that are narrated with regards to it by Imams like Ibn Taymiyyah and Ibn Rajab etc. But that being said, the other modes are also established authentically and should not be left out. We should mix between the different modes across our different prayers to gain the benefits from all of the narrated modes.
The Sixth Dhikr
The sixth dhikr is the recitation of Ayatul Kursi. This is
ٱللَّهُ لَآ إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ ٱلْحَىُّ ٱلْقَيُّومُ ۚ لَا تَأْخُذُهُۥ سِنَةٌۭ وَلَا نَوْمٌۭ ۚ لَّهُۥ مَا فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٰتِ وَمَا فِى ٱلْأَرْضِ ۗ مَن ذَا ٱلَّذِى يَشْفَعُ عِندَهُۥٓ إِلَّا بِإِذْنِهِۦ ۚ يَعْلَمُ مَا بَيْنَ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَمَا خَلْفَهُمْ ۖ وَلَا يُحِيطُونَ بِشَىْءٍۢ مِّنْ عِلْمِهِۦٓ إِلَّا بِمَا شَآءَ ۚ وَسِعَ كُرْسِيُّهُ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٰتِ وَٱلْأَرْضَ ۖ وَلَا يَـُٔودُهُۥ حِفْظُهُمَا ۚ وَهُوَ ٱلْعَلِىُّ ٱلْعَظِيمُ
Allah - there is no deity except Him, the Ever-Living, the Self-Sustaining. Neither drowsiness overtakes Him nor sleep. To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth. Who is it that can intercede with Him except by His permission? He knows what is [presently] before them and what will be after them, and they encompass not a thing of His knowledge except for what He wills. His Kurs extends over the heavens and the earth, and their preservation tires Him not. And He is the Most High,the Most Great.[Surah al-Baqarah, 255]
This is to be recited once in a lowered voice.
It is called Ayat al-Kursi because this is the only place in the Quran where the Kursi of Allah is mentioned.
Narrated Abu Umamah رضي الله عنه: Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) said: "Whoever recites Ayat al-Kursi at the end of every obligatory prayer, nothing but death will prevent him from entering Paradise." [Nasa'i]
Advices Regarding The 6 Adhkar
It is from the Sunnah that the person recites all these adhkar mentioned above in a slightly raised voice such that the person beside him would be able to hear it with the exception of Ayat al-Kursi which is to be recited silently. Raised voice here doesn't mean shouting such that it disturbs the people. The congregation and those making up the missed part of the salah need to be taken into consideration as well.
These adhkar should not be done in unison by the congregation. If there is an unplanned synchronisation between the congregants, then that is overlooked.
The order mentioned for these 6 adhkar doesn't need to be necessarily followed strictly except for the first and second dhikr which have a specific command to maintain their order.
These adhkar can be done till the time of that prayer is available. If a person who is usually regular with the adhkar, forgets or gets busy such that the time of the prayer has passed, even then the person should complete his/her adhkar.
If a person is travelling and combines his prayers, then he does the dhikr only once instead of twice.
Adhkar After Voluntary Prayers
These are the adhkar that are recited after the nawafil salat.
The first is to say after the Salah al-Witr:
سُبْحَانَ الْمَلِكِ الْقُدُّوسِ
Glory be to the Sovereign, the Most Holy
This is to be said three times.
It was narrated from Ibn Abdur-Rahman bin Abza that his father said: "The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) used to recite in witr: Glorify the Name of Your Lord, the Most High;' and "Say: O you disbelievers!'; and 'Say: He is Allah, (the) One." And after he had said the salam, he would say: Subhanal-Malikil-Quddus (Glory be to the Sovereign, the Most Holy) three times, raising his voice with it." [Nasai]
This dhikr is restricted to only Salah al-Witr and the third instance of it is to be louder than the first two.
The addition of wordings like 'Rabbil Mala'ikati war Ruh' at the end of this dhikr is an increase that is inauthentic.
The second is to say after the Salah ad-Duha:
اللَّهُمَّ اغْفِرْ لِي، وَتُبْ عَلَيَّ، إِنَّكَ أَنْتَ التَّوَّابُ الرَّحِيمُ
Aisha رضي الله عنها said, "The Messenger of Allah ﷺ prayed the Duha prayer and then said, 'O Lord, forgive me and turn to me. You are the Ever-Turning back (to his slaves), the Merciful' a hundred times." [Adab al-Mufrad]
This is to be said once.
This dhikr is restricted to only Salah ad-Duha. We have some versions of this dua that read Rabbigfirli (رَبِّ اغْفِرْ لِي) instead of Allahumghfirli (اللَّهُمَّ اغْفِرْ لِي) and both are fine.
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