Expiations & Compensations
يُخَيَّرُ بِفِدْيَةِ حَلْقٍ وتَقْلِيمٍ وَتَغْطِيَةِ رَأْسٍ وَطِيبٍ بَيْنَ صِيَامِ ثَلَاثَةِ أَيَّامٍ
أَوْ إِطْعَامِ سِتَّةِ مَسَاكِينَ, كُلِّ مِسْكِينٍ مُدَّ بُرٍّ أَوْ نِصْفَ صَاعٍ تَمْرٍ,أَوْ زَبِيبٍ أَوْ شَعِيرٍ,
أَوْ ذَبْحِ شَاةٍ
A person who falls into one of the following: shaving, clipping the nails, covering the head, and using perfume, has to give an expiation to make amends. A person can choose between:
- Fasting 3 Days
- Feeding 6 Poor People: Giving each poor person a mudd (0.51 litres / one handful) of wheat or half a saa’ (1.02 litres / two handfuls) of dried dates or raisins, or barley
- Slaughtering A Sheep
وفي جزاء صيد بين بمثل مثلي، أو تقويمه بدراهم ليشتري بها طعاماً يجزئ في فطرة، ويطعم كل مسكين مد بر أو نصف صاع من غيره، أو يصوم عن طعام كل مسكين يوماً، وبين إطعام أو صيام في غير مثلي
With regards to hunting or slaughtering land based game animals in a state of Ihram, one can choose between:
- Slaughtering a similar or comparable animal.
- It can be compared only to the standard animals, that are from a camel, or a cow, or a sheep.
- If one is unable to compare properly, then 2 witnesses from the people of knowledge are asked to judge and decide the closest animal.
- If an animal is not found to be similar – Valuing the price of the animal in dirhams and then using that to buy food that is appropriate for Zakat al-Fitr.
- This is distributed among the poor, each who gets, a mudd (0.51 litres / one handful) of wheat or half a saa’ (1.02 litres / two handfuls) of dried dates or raisins, or barley
- Fasting one day in place of each person that could have been fed by the food from the price of the animal.
In the Muwatta of Imam Malik and other ahadith collections, we find the example of hunting an ostrich. If an ostrich is hunted, then that which is similar in size or height, in this case a camel is to be slaughtered.
If one cannot compare the animal, then one chooses only between feeding the poor and fasting.
وَإِنْ عَدِمَ مُتَمَتِّعٌ أَوْ قَارِنٌ اَلْهَدْيَ صَامَ ثَلَاثَةَ أَيَّامٍ فِي اَلْحَجِّ, وَالْأَفْضَلُ جَعْلُ آخِرِهَا يَوْمُ عَرَفَةَ, وَسَبْعَةً إِذَا رَجَعَ لِأَهْلِهِ,
وَالْمُحْصَر إِذَا لَمْ يَجِدْهُ صَامَ عَشْرَةَ أَيَّامٍ, ثُمَّ حَلَّ,
وَتَسْقُطُ بِنِسْيَانٍ فِي لُبْسٍ, وَطِيبٍ وَتَغْطِيَةِ رَأْسٍ
If someone is performing Hajj Tamattu’ (Umrah and Hajj in the same year) or Hajj Qiran and have not bought a sacrificial animal or cannot find an animal, then they have to fast 3 days during Hajj and 7 days after returning home to their families. The time period for fasting begins the moment when one is in the state of Ihram for Umrah. It is best to make the last of these three days to be the Day of Arafah.
- This is the only person who is allowed to fast the Days of Tashreeq (11-12-13 Dhul Hijjah).
- If a person delays fasting past this as well, then they have to make up these 3 fasts and offer a sacrifice as compensation for it. This sacrifice is either a sheep, or a seventh of a camel, or a seventh of a cow.
- Returning to the family here intends the completion of Hajj and not literally being back home with family.
If a person cannot perform his pilgrimage, or is held back from it, and does not find a sacrificial animal; then he is to fast 10 days. If the person finds an animal, then they can just sacrifice the animal and return.
- Ata’ Ibn Abi Rabah, from the senior students of Ibn Abbas in Makkah was considered as the Mufti during Hajj of his time. He ruled that a person can be held back for any reason that can include fear, external forces etc.
It is after this that the obligations and restrictions of Ihram are lifted from him.
If a person out of forgetfulness, ignorance, or compulsion wears clothing that covers the limbs, applies perfume, or covers the head; then the expiation for them is waived. The person gets back into their Ihram cloth, removes the perfume etc if such has happened.
وَكُلُّ هَدْيٍ أَوْ طَعَامٍ فَلِمَسَاكِين اَلْحَرَمِ, إِلَّا فِدْيَةَ أَذًى وَلُبْسٍ وَنَحْوِهَا, فَحَيْثُ وُجِدَ سَبَبُهَا, وَيُجْزِئُ اَلصَّوْمُ بِكُلِّ مَكَانٍ, وَالدَّمُ شَاةٌ أَوْ سُبْع ُ بَدَنَةٍ أَوْ بَقَرَةٍ
Every sacrifice or food that is given as an expiation is for the poor of Makkah, with the exception of the expiation for removing the hair, wearing clothes, and that which is similar to it like applying perfume, cutting nails, sexual touch and foreplay without ejaculation etc.
Fasting is permissible from any place of the world and not necessarily to be done only in Makkah.
The blood sacrifice is either slaughtering a sheep, or one-seventh of a camel, or one-seventh of a cow.
وَيُرْجَعُ فِي جَزَاءِ اَلصَّيْدِ إِلَى مَا قَضَتْ فِيهِ اَلصَّحَابَةُ, وَفِيمَا لَمْ تَقْضِ فِيهِ إِلَى قَوْلِ عَدْلَيْنِ خَبِيرَيْنِ, وَمَا لَا مِثْلَ لَهُ تَجِبُ قِيمَتُهُ مَكَانَهُ
As for the expiation of hunting, one returns to the judgements of the Sahaba. If they did not specify a particular type of animal to be compared to, then we consult two upright experts in the matter. If no similarity can be determined for the hunted animal, then the person returns to its value at its location.
وَحَرُمَ مُطْلَقًا صَيْدُ حَرَمِ مَكَّةَ
وَقَطْعُ شَجَرِهِ وَحَشِيشِهِ إِلَّا اَلْإِذْخِر وَفِيهِ اَلْجَزَاءُ
وَصَيْدُ حَرَمِ اَلْمَدِينَةِ
وَقَطْعُ شَجَرِهِ وَحَشِيشِهِ لِغَيْرِ حَاجَةِ عَلَفٍ وَقَتَب
وَنَحْوِهِمَا وَلَا جَزَاءَ
It is absolutely forbidden to hunt within the Haram boundary irrespective if the person is in a state of Ihram or not.
It is impermissible to cut its trees and grass with the exception of idhkir (a type of plant). If cut, an expiation is owed for it. For a large tree, a person is required to give a camel or cow as an expiation. As for trees, one gives a sheep. For small plants, one gives its value in the form of food to the poor.
Narrated Mujahid: Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) got up on the day of the Conquest of Makkah and said,
إِنَّ اللَّهَ حَرَّمَ مَكَّةَ يَوْمَ خَلَقَ السَّمَوَاتِ وَالأَرْضَ، فَهْىَ حَرَامٌ بِحَرَامِ اللَّهِ إِلَى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ، لَمْ تَحِلَّ لأَحَدٍ قَبْلِي، وَلاَ تَحِلُّ لأَحَدٍ بَعْدِي، وَلَمْ تَحْلِلْ لِي إِلاَّ سَاعَةً مِنَ الدَّهْرِ، لاَ يُنَفَّرُ صَيْدُهَا، وَلاَ يُعْضَدُ شَوْكُهَا، وَلاَ يُخْتَلَى خَلاَهَا وَلاَ تَحِلُّ لُقَطَتُهَا إِلاَّ لِمُنْشِدٍ
“Allah has made Makkah a sanctuary since the day He created the Heavens and the Earth, and it will remain a sanctuary by virtue of the sanctity Allah has bestowed on it till the Day of Resurrection. It (i.e. fighting in it) was not made lawful to anyone before me!, nor will it be made lawful to anyone after me, and it was not made lawful for me except for a short period of time. Its game should not be chased, nor should its trees be cut, nor its vegetation or grass uprooted, not its Luqata (i.e. most things) picked up except by one who makes a public announcement about it.”
Al-Abbas bin Abdul Muttalib said, “Except the Idhkhir, O Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ), as it is indispensable for blacksmiths and houses.” On that, the Prophet (ﷺ) kept quiet and then said,
إِلاَّ الإِذْخِرَ فَإِنَّهُ حَلاَلٌ
“Except the Idhkhir as it is lawful to cut.” [Bukhari]
It is impermissible to hunt within the sacred boundary of Madinah. It is impermissible to cut its trees and grass without a need like using it for animals (fodder), camel saddles, and that which is similar. No expiation is owed for this. Imam Ibn Badran says that the trees of Madinah are not cut except for something that is genuinely needed.
Narrated Abdullah bin Zaid: The Prophet ﷺ said,
أَنَّ إِبْرَاهِيمَ حَرَّمَ مَكَّةَ، وَدَعَا لَهَا، وَحَرَّمْتُ الْمَدِينَةَ كَمَا حَرَّمَ إِبْرَاهِيمُ مَكَّةَ، وَدَعَوْتُ لَهَا فِي مُدِّهَا وَصَاعِهَا، مِثْلَ مَا دَعَا إِبْرَاهِيمُ ـ عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَمُ ـ لِمَكَّةَ
“The Prophet Ibrahim made Makkah a sanctuary, and asked for Allah’s blessing in it. I made Madinah a sanctuary as Ibrahim made Makkah a sanctuary and I asked for Allah’s Blessing in its measures the mudd and the saa’ as Ibrahim did for Makkah. [Agreed Upon]
Based on the Hanbali primer, Akhsar Al-Mukhtasarat authored by Ibn Balban al-Hanbali as taught by Sheikh Zahed Fettah حفظه الله